Main Article Content
In this paper, we seek to provide a rich exploration of the conceptions of and approaches to research-teaching linkages (RTL) that are held and undertaken by scholars, researchers and academics within Higher Education (HE). The work we report has been undertaken as part of a longitudinal institutional project to broaden and deepen engagement with RTL in a geographically distributed university that sits within a particular social and economic context. The project has a primary focus on exploring creative new ways to embed RTL principles and practices across a broad range of subject areas, within formal learning and teaching, and curricula, in such a way that the intellectual work our students undertake and produce has a direct value to the needs of the wider communities the university serves.
Within this paper, we present key aspects of our work and findings to date in three distinct parts. Part 1 summarises the main findings from an extensive review of the literature related to RTL that we undertook, and in which we synthesise the literature on RTL into four distinct areas comprising: perceptions of RTL; principles of RTL; productivity in RTL, and practice in RTL. In the latter area we consider the concept of the ‘curriculum as praxis’. Part 2 of the paper describes and reports on the emerging findings of our own research, which took the form of a phenomenographic study investigating the conceptions of and approaches to RTL within the range of staff who are participating in the aforementioned institutional project. The phenomenography represents a contribution to a relatively small research base of phenomenographic research concerning RTL. In Part 3 of the paper we consider and look towards how we reconcile the promise and possibilities of RTL, particularly in relation to the ‘curriculum as praxis’, with the perceptions and practices emerging from our phenomenographic study. In doing so we offer a consideration of practical next steps that we are now taking, including recommendations we hope others may find useful.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice has made best effort to ensure accuracy of the contents of this journal, however makes no claims to the authenticity and completeness of the articles published. Authors are responsible for ensuring copyright clearance for any images, tables etc which are supplied from an outside source.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Akerlind, G.S. (2004). A new dimension to understanding university teaching. Teaching in Higher Education, 9(3), 363-375.
Amsler, S. & Canaan, J. (2008). Whither critical pedagogy in the neo-liberal university today? Two UK practitioners’ reflections on constraints and possibilities’ Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences, 1(2), 1-31
Bazeley, P. (2010). Conceptualising research performance. Studies in Higher Education, 35(8), 889-903. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070903348404
Blackmore, P. & Cousin, G. (2003). Linking teaching and research through research-based learning. Educational Developments, 4(4), 24–7.
Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University (1998) Reinventing undergraduate education: a blueprint for America's research universities. Stony Brook: State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Brew, A. (2001). Conceptions of research: a phenomenographic study. Studies in Higher Education, 26(3), 271-285.
Brew, A. (2006). Research and teaching: Beyond the divide. London: Palgrave MacMillan
Brew, A. & Boud, D. (1995) Teaching and research: Establishing the vital link with learning. Higher Education, 29(3), 261-273. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384493
Buckley, C. (2011). Student and staff perceptions of the research-teaching nexus. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 48(3), 313-322. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2011.593707
Centra, J. (1983), Research productivity and teaching effectiveness. Research in Higher Education, 18(4), 379-389. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00974804
Cheesman, K. (2015). Two sides of the coin: how a departmental culture of inquiry teaching and undergraduate research go hand in hand. In S. Latourelle (Ed.) Innovations in College Science Teaching (pp. 49-63). Society for College Science Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.scst.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/scst_monograph_2015.pdf
Dupin, C.M., Larsson M., Dariel. O., Debout, C. & Rothan-Tondeur M. (2015). Conceptions of learning research: variations amongst French and Swedish nurses. A phenomenographic study. Nurse Education Today, 35(1), 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2014.06.003
Elken, M. & Wollscheid, S. (2016). The relationship between research and education: typologies and indicators A literature review. Oslo: Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU).
Elton, L. (2001). Research and teaching: Conditions for a positive link. Teaching in Higher Education, 6(1), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562510020029590
Feldman, K. (1987). Research productivity and scholarly accomplishment of college teachers as related to their instructional effectiveness: a review and exploration. Research in Higher Education, 26(3), 227-298. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992241
Freeman S., Eddy S., McDonough M., Smith M., Okoroafor N., Jordt H., & Wenderoth M. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 111(23), 8410–8415. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319030111
Freire, P. (1970). The Pedagogy of the Oppressed, London: Penguin
Fung, D. (2017). A Connected Curriculum for Higher Education. London: UCL Press. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ucl-press/browse-books/a-connected-curriculum-for-higher-education.
Galbraith, C. & Merrill, G. (2012). Faculty research productivity and standardised student learning outcomes in a University teaching environment: A Bayesian analysis of relationships. Studies in Higher Education, 37(4), 469-480. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2010.523782
Hajdarpasic, A., Brew, A. & Popenici, S. (2015). The contribution of academics’ engagement in research to undergraduate education. Studies in Higher Education, 40(4), 644-657. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.842215
Hall, R. and Smyth, K. (2016). Dismantling the Curriculum in Higher Education. Open Library of Humanities, 2(1). Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.16995/olh.66
Hattie, J. & Marsh, H. W. (1996). The relationship between research and teaching: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 507-542. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004507
Healey, M. (2005). Linking research and teaching exploring disciplinary spaces and the role of inquiry-based learning. In R. Barnett (Ed.) Reshaping the university: new relationships between research, scholarship and teaching (pp. 30-42). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.
Healey, M. & Jenkins, A. (2006). Strengthening the teaching-research linkage in undergraduate courses and programs. In C. Kreber (Ed.) Exploring research-based teaching. New directions for teaching and learning ,107, 45-55.
Healey, M. (2009). Developing Undergraduate Research and Inquiry. York: Higher Education Academy
Healey, M., Jordan, F., Pell, B. & Short, C. (2010). The research-teaching nexus: A case study of students’ awareness, experiences and perceptions of research. Innovation in Education and Training International, 47(2), 235-246. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703291003718968
Humboldt, W. von (1810). Über die innere and äußere Organisation der höheren wissenschaftlichen Anstalten in Berlin. In H. Weinstock (Ed.) (1957) Wilhelm von Humboldt (pp. 126–134). Frankfurt: Fischer Bücherei.
Jenkins, A., Blackman, T., Lindsay, R. & Paton-Saltzberg, R. (1998). Teaching and research: student perspectives and policy implications. Studies in Higher Education, 23, 127-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079812331380344
Johnston, B., MacNeill, S. and Smyth, K. (2019). Conceptualising the Digital University: The intersection of policy, pedagogy and practice. Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan.
Joseph-Richard, P. & Tansy Jessop (2020). A phenomenographic study of research informed teaching through the eyes of Masters’ students, Studies in Higher Education, 45(4), 847-861. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1554640
Kawulich, B., Garner, M.W.J. & Wagner, C. (2009) Students’ conceptions - and misconceptions - of social research. Qualitative Sociology Review, V(3), 5-25. Retrieved from: http://www.qualitativesociologyreview.org/ENG/Volume14/abstracts.php
Kyvik, S. (2013). The academic researcher role: Enhancing expectations and improved performance. Higher Education, 65(4), 525-538. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23470836
Larsson, M., Mårtensson, K., Price, L., & Roxå. T. (2020) Constructive friction? Charting the relation between educational research and the scholarship of teaching and learning. Teaching & Learning Inquiry, 8(1), 61-75. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.8.1.5.
Levy, P. & Petrulis, R. (2012). How do first-year university students experience inquiry and research, and what are the implications for the practice of inquiry-based learning?. Studies in Higher Education, 37(1), 85-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2010.499166
Lindsay, R., Breen, R. & Jenkins, A. (2002). Academic research and teaching quality: the views of undergraduate and postgraduate students. Studies in Higher Education, 27(3), 309-327. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070220000699
Malcolm, M. (2014). A critical evaluation of recent progress in understanding the role of the research-teaching link in higher education. Higher Education, 67(3), 289-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9650-8
Martin, E., Trigwell, K., Prosser, M. & Ramsden, P. (2003). Variation in the experience of leadership of teaching in Higher Education. Studies in Higher Education, 28(3), 247-259.
Marton, F. (1994). Phenomenography. In T. Husen & N. Postlethwaite (Eds.) International Encyclopaedia of Education, (pp. 4424-4429). Pergamon.
Marton, F., Hounsell, D. & Entwistle, N., (Eds.) (2005). The Experience of Learning: Implications for teaching and studying in higher education (3rd edition). University of Edinburgh, Centre for Teaching, Learning and Assessment. Retrieved from: https://www.ed.ac.uk/institute-academic-development/learning-teaching/research/experience-of-learning
Mcnay, I. (2006). Delivering mass Higher Education - The reality of policy in practice. In I. Mcnay (Ed.) Beyond Mass Higher Education (pp. 1-14). Maidenhead: SRHE and Open University Press
NCIHE (National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education) (1997). Higher education in the learning society. Report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education: The Dearing Report. London: HMSO. Retrieved from http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/dearing1997/dearing1997.html
Neary, M. (2010). Student as Producer: A Pedagogy for the Avant-Garde; Or, How Do Revolutionary Teachers Teach? Learning Exchange, 1(1). Retrieved from http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/4186/
Neary, M., Saunders, G., Hagyard, A., & Derrico, D. (2014). Student as Producer: research-engaged teaching, an institutional strategy. York: Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/system/files/hub/download/lincoln_ntfs_2010_project_final_report_fv.pdf
Neary, M. & Winn, J. (2009). The student as producer: Reinventing the student experience in higher education. In L. Bell, H. Stevenson & M. Neary (Eds.) The future of higher education: Policy, pedagogy and the student experience (pp. 126-138). New York: Continuum
Neumann, R. (1992). Perceptions of the research-teaching nexus: a framework for analysis. Higher Education, 23(2), 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00143643
Neumann, R. (1994). The Teaching-Research Nexus: Applying a Framework to University Students' Learning Experiences. European Journal of Education, 29(3), 323-338. http://doi.org/10.2307/1503744
Ozay, S. (2012), The dimensions of research in undergraduate learning. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(4), 453-464. http://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2011.641009
Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P.T. (2005). How college affects students (Volume 2): a third decade of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Ramsden, P. & Moses, I. (1992). Associations between research and teaching in Australian higher education. Higher Education, 23(3), 273-295. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00145017
Rikowski, G. (2006). Caught in the storm of capital: Teacher professionalism, managerialism and neoliberalism in schools. A paper prepared for Education, Culture & Society (EDU3004) Students, School of Education, University of Northampton. Retrieved from http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=articles&sub=Caught%20in%20the%20Storm%20of%20Capital
Robertson, J. & Bond, C.H. (2001). Experiences of the relation between teaching and research: what do academics value? Higher Education Research and Development, 20(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/07924360120043612
Smeby, J. (1998) ‘Knowledge Production and Knowledge Transmission. The interaction between research and teaching at universities’. Teaching in Higher Education 3(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/1356215980030101
Spronken-Smith, R., Walker, R., O’Steen, W., Matthews, H., Batchelor, J. & Angelo, T. (2008). Reconceptualising inquiry-based learning: Synthesis of findings. Wellington, NZ: Ako Aotearoa, The National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence. Retrieved from https://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/project/inquiry-based-learning/resources/books/synthesis-findings
Stanton, A., Taylor, R. & Stanaland, A. (2009). An examination of the relationship between research attitudes and behaviors of business school faculty. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(3), 37-49.
Strachan, S.M., Marshall, S., Murray, P., Coyle, E.J. & Sonnenberg-Klein, J. (2019). Using Vertically Integrated Projects to embed research-based education for sustainable development in undergraduate curricula. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 20(8), 1313-1328. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSHE-10-2018-0198
Trigwell, K., Prosser, M. & Taylor, P. (1994). Qualitative differences in approaches to teaching first year university science. Higher Education, 27, 75-84.
Trigwell, K., Prosser, M. & Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teachers’ approaches to teaching and students’ approaches to learning. Higher Education, 37, 57-70.
Turner, N., Wuetherick, B. & Healey, M. (2008). International perspectives on student perceptions of research: the role of academic development in implementing research-based teaching and learning in higher education. International Journal for Academic Development, 13(3), 161-173
Various (1988) The Magna Charta of the European Universities. Retrieved from http://www.magna-charta.org
Vygotsky, L. (1986) (A. Kozulin, Ed.). Thought and Language. Cambridge: MIT Press
Wood, J. (2010). Inquiry-based learning in the arts: A Meta-analytical Study. CILASS (Centre for Inquiry-based Learning in the Arts and Social Sciences): University of Sheffield. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/reader/17353070
Zamorski, B. (2000). Research-led teaching and learning in Higher Education. Norwich: Centre for Applied Research in Education