Main Article Content
Student perceptions of their studies and learning are important influencers of academic performance and outcome. Here we find that the grades students anticipate obtaining may differ significantly from grades awarded: students’ perceptions of their studies appear to be at odds with the university’s assessment of their academic worth. A previous study introduced students to the concept of self-efficacy and its effects on academic performance and outcome; we demonstrate that students’ self-efficacy can be raised. Importantly, the focus is not on the validity of the concept of self-efficacy as the guiding or defining principle in this research, but rather a means to potentially identify important student perceptions that may influence academic performance. Moreover, the effect, emphasises a mismatch between student and university expectations of the measure of achievement: students overestimate their anticipated grades against grades awarded. By encouraging improved self-efficacy are we emphasising differences between anticipated and awarded grades? Are we diminishing the student’s sense of achievement and therefore negatively impacting on student performance? To resolve this, in this study we shift the focus from the purely analytical analysis of the impact of self-efficacy and highlight assumptions of the primacy of grades as signifier of academic success. Academic success is motivated by a desire for learning as much as for good grades. Furthermore, a student’s academic success reflects a complex of socio-personal influences. These perspectives allow the effects of improved self-efficacy to be formative in the student’s maturing sense of belonging within education. The survey and concept of self-efficacy is now better understood as the vehicle for improved experiences of learning, becoming potent drivers of student success.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice has made best effort to ensure accuracy of the contents of this journal, however makes no claims to the authenticity and completeness of the articles published. Authors are responsible for ensuring copyright clearance for any images, tables etc which are supplied from an outside source.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Alonso-Tapia, J., & Pardo, A. (2006). Assessment of learning environment motivational quality from the point of view of secondary and high school learners. Learning and Instruction, 16, 295-309. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.07.002
Ayala, J.C., & Manzano, G. (2018). Academic performance of first-year university students: the influence of resilience and engagement. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(7), 1321-1335. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1502258
Baeten, M., Kyndt, E., Struyven, K., & Docky, F. (2010). Using student-centred learning environments to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging or discouraging their effectiveness. Educational Research Review, 5, 243–260. DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2010.06.001
Beatty, J.E. (2004). Grades as money and the role of the market metaphor in management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(2), 187-196. DOI: 10.5465/amle.2004.13500516
Bennett, D., Kapoor, R., Rajinder, K., & Maynard, N. (2015). First year engineering students: Perceptions of engineers and engineering work amongst domestic and international students. The International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education, 6(1), 89-105. DOI: 10.5204/intjfyhe.v6i1.272
Cheng, Y.-H., Tsai, C.-C., & Liang, J.-C. (2019). Academic hardiness and academic self-efficacy in graduate studies. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(5), 907-921. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1612858
Chester, A., Johnston, A. & Clarke, A. (2019). Partnerships for Learning and Belonging in Tertiary Education: A Social Capital Analysis. In B. Tynan, T. McLaughlin, A.Chester, C. Hall-Van den Elsen & B. Kennedy (Eds). Transformations in Tertiary Education (pp.11-26). Singapore: Springer. ISBN: 978-981-13-9957-2
Day, I.N., van Blankenstein, F.M., Westenberg, P.M., & Admiraal, W.F. (2018). Explaining individual student success using continuous assessment types and student characteristics. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(5), 937-951. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1466868
Dickson, L., & Summerville, T. (2018). ‘The Truth About Stories’: Coming to Compassionate Pedagogy in a First-Year Program. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 6(3), 24-29. DOI: 10.14297/jpaap.v6i3.378
Duchatelet, D., & Donche, V. (2019). Fostering self-efficacy and self-regulation in higher education: a matter of autonomy support or academic motivation? Higher Education Research & Development, 38(4), 733-747. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1581143
Edwards, R.K., Kellner, K.R., Sistrom, C.L., & Magyari, E.J. (2003). Medical student self-assessment of performance on an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 188(4), 1078-1082. DOI: 10.1067/mob.2003.249
Ellis, R.A., Goodyear, P., Calvo, R.A., & Prosser, M. (2008). Engineering students’ conceptions of and approaches to learning through discussions in face-to-face and online contexts. Instruction, 18, 267-282. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.06.001
Entwistle, N.J., & Peterson, E.R. (2004). Conceptions of learning and knowledge in higher education: Relationships with study behaviour and influences of learning environments. International Journal of Educational Research, 41, 407–428. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2005.08.009
Foster, N.L., Was, C.A., Dunlosky, J., & Isaacson, R.M. (2017). Even after thirteen class exams, students are still overconfident: the role of memory for past exam performance in student predictions. Metacognition and Learning, 12(1), 1-19. DOI: 10.1007/s11409-016-9158-6
Foulstone, A.R., & Kelly, A. (2019). Enhancing academic self-efficacy and performance among fourth year psychology students: Findings from a short educational intervention. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 9. DOI: 10.20429/ijsotl.2019.130209
Gulikers, J.T.M., Kester, L., Kirschner, P.A., & Bastiaens, T.J. (2008). The effect of practical experience on perceptions of assessment authenticity, study approach, and learning outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 18, 172-186. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.02.012
Hemsley-Brown, J., & Lowrie, A. (2010). Higher education marketing (Editorial). International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(2), 1-4. DOI: 10.1108/ijpsm.2010.04223baa.002
Jevons, C., & Lindsay, S. (2018). The middle years slump: addressing student-reported barriers to academic progress. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(6), 1156-1170. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1462305
Judson, K.M., & Taylor, S.A. (2014). Moving from marketization to marketing of higher education: The co-creation of value in higher education. Higher Education Studies, 4(1), 51-67. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1076369.pdf
Kahu, E.R., & Nelson, K. (2018). Student engagement in the educational interface: understanding the mechanisms of student success. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(1), 58-71. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2017.1344197
Kilpatrick, S., Barnes, R.K., Heath, J., Lovat, A., Kong, W.-C., Flittner, N., & Avitaia, S. (2019). Disruptions and bridges in rural Australia: higher education aspiration to expectation of participation. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(3), 550-564 DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1556619
Lake, W., Boyd, W.E., & Boyd, W. 2018. Transforming student expectations through a real-time feedback process and the introduction of concepts of self efficacy – surprising results of a university-wide experiment. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 15(5), Article 5, 23 pp. https://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol15/iss5/5
Lake, W., Boyd, W., Boyd, W., & Hellmundt, S. (2017). Just another student survey? – Point-of-contact survey feedback enhances the student experience and lets researchers gather data. Australian Journal of Adult Learning 57 (1), 82-104.
Lane, M., Moore, A., Hooper, L., Menzies, V., Cooper, B., Shaw, N., & Rueckert, C. (2019). Dimensions of student success: a framework for defining and evaluating support for learning in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(5), 954-968. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1615418
Lea, S.J., Stephenson, D., & Troy, J. (2003). Higher education students’ attitudes to student-centred learning” Beyond ‘educational bulimia’. Studies in Higher Education, 28(3), 321-334. DOI: 10.1080/03075070309293
MacKenzie, A., & Maginess, T. (2018). Achieving Moralised Compassion in Higher Education. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 6(3), 42-48. DOI: 10.14297/jpaap.v6i3.370
Metcalf, D.A. & Wiener, K.K.K. (2018). Academic self-efficacy in a twenty-first-century Australian university: strategies for first-generation students. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(7), 1472-1488. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1484705
Mukhopadhyay, K., & Tambyah, S.K. (2019). Where freshmen aspirations meet reality: factors influencing the learning outcomes of a living-and-learning program in an Asian university. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(5), 1015-1030. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1598337
Nagle, B. (1998). A proposal for dealing with grade inflation: The relative performance index. Journal of Education for Business, 74(1), 40-43. DOI: 10.1080/08832329809601659
Nelson, R. (2018). Failing with student success: the hidden role of bad luck and false empowerment. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(5), 1050-1061. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1462306
Nijhuis, J., Segers, M., & Gijselaers, W. (2008). The extent of variability in learning strategies and students’ perceptions of the learning environment. Learning and Instruction, 18, 121-134. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.01.009
Norodien-Fataar, N. (2018). The cultivation of learning dispositions among first-generation disadvantaged students at a South African university. Educational Studies, 54(5), 505-521. DOI: 10.1080/00131946.2018.1509862
O’Donovan, B.M, den Outer, B., Price, M., & Lloyd, D. (2019). What makes good feedback good? Studies in Higher Education, 1-12. DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2019.1630812
O'Shea, O., & Delahunty, J. (2018). Getting through the day and still having a smile on my face! How do students define success in the university learning environment? Higher Education Research & Development, 37(5), 1062-1075. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1463973
O’Shea, S., Stone, C., Delahunty, J., & May, J. (2016). Discourses of betterment and opportunity: exploring the privileging of university attendance for first-in-family learners. Studies in Higher Education, 43(6), 1020-1033. DOI: 1080/03075079.2016.1212325
Picton, C., Kahu, E.R., & Nelson, K. (2018). ‘Hardworking, determined and happy’: first-year students’ understanding and experience of success. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(6), 1260-1273. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1478803
Pillay, H. (2002). Understanding Learner-centredness: Does it consider the diverse needs of individuals? Studies in Continuing Education, 24(1), 93-102. DOI: 10.1080/01580370220130468
Pirrie, A. (2018). Virtue and the Quiet Art of Scholarship: Reclaiming the University. London: Routledge. ISBN: 9781138486911
Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 353-387
Segers, M., Nijhuis, J., & Gijselaers, W. (2006). Redesigning a learning and assessment environment: the influence on students' perceptions of assessment demands and their learning strategies. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 32, 223-242. DOI: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2006.08.004
Smith, S., Hunter, D., & Sobolewska, E. (2019). Getting in, getting on: fragility in student and graduate identity. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1612857
Stoszkowski, J., & McCarthy, L. (2018). “Who Wouldn't Want to Take Charge of their Learning?” Student Views on Learner Autonomy, Self-Determination and Motivation. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 6(2), 104-107. DOI: 10.14297/jpaap.v6i2.330
Struyven, K., Dochy, F., Janssens, S. & Gielen, S. (2006). On the dynamics of students’ approaches to learning: The effects of the teaching/learning environment. Learning and Instruction, 16, 279-294. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.07.001
Tai, J. H.-M., Bellingham, R., Lang, J., & Dawson, P. (2013). Student perspectives of engagement in learning in contemporary and digital contexts. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1598338
Taylor, S.A., & Judson, K.M. (2011). A service perspective on the marketization of undergraduate education. Service Science, 3(2), 110-126. DOI: 10.1287/serv.3.2.110
Vermunt, J.D., & Verloop, N. (1999). Congruence and friction between learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction, 9, 257–280. DOI: 10.1016/S0959-4752(98)00028-0
Vizoso, C., Rodríguez, C., & Arias-Gundín, O. (2018). Coping, academic engagement and performance in university students. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(7), 1515-1529. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2018.1504006
Waddington, K. (2018). Developing Compassionate Academic Leadership: The Practice of Kindness. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 6(3), 87-89. DOI: 10.14297/jpaap.v6i3.375
Wilson, C., Marks Woolfson, L., & Durkin, K. (2018). School environment and mastery experience as predictors of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs towards inclusive teaching. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2018.1455901