Main Article Content
This study examines the effectiveness of e-learning frameworks in engaging academic staff in the discussions and activities associated with technology enhanced learning (TEL) development. In particular, the paper explores the effectiveness of a framework in use at Leeds Beckett University as part of the development of digital literacy as a graduate attribute.
The research investigates the extent to which staff identify with the framework and the associated activities. They are required to undertake mapping exercises in order to use the framework in their own practice to support digital literacy development.
A phenomenographic approach was taken in order to identify the variation in experiences staff had with regards to the e-learning framework activities. Using semi-structured interviews, evidence was gathered from which categories of variation were identified. Although participant numbers were limited this was overcome by the use of purposeful sampling.
Analysis revealed that staff experienced the use of the e-learning framework in three ways:
- as a tool for communicating their use of technology for teaching with their learners,
- as a mechanism for mapping and sharing best practice with peers,
- as a tool for measuring e-learning activity and reporting on it.
The final outcome space identified the potential for the current framework to be expanded beyond its intended audience to other prospective stakeholders. This study also spotlights opportunities to extend this research to provide a richer evidence base and identify potential practical applications.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice has made best effort to ensure accuracy of the contents of this journal, however makes no claims to the authenticity and completeness of the articles published. Authors are responsible for ensuring copyright clearance for any images, tables etc which are supplied from an outside source.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Ashworth, P. D. & Lucas, U. (1998). What is the world of phenomenography? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 42(4), 415-431.
Ashworth, P., & Lucas, U. (2000). Achieving Empathy and Engagement: A practical approach to the design, conduct and reporting of phenomenographic research. Studies in Higher Education, 25(3), 295–308.
Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (2007). Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age. Information Systems Journal.
Blake, H. (2009). Staff perceptions of e-learning for teaching delivery in healthcare. Learning in Health and Social Care, 8(3), 223–234.
Collier-Reed, B. I., Ingerman, Å., & Berglund, A. (2009). Reflections on trustworthiness in phenomenographic research: Recognising purpose, context and change in the process of research. Education as Change, 13(2), 339–355.
Ellis, R. A., & Calvo, R. A. (2007). Minimum indicators to assure quality of LMS-supported blended learning. Educational Technology & Society, 10(2), 60–70.
Elrod, P. D. E., & Tippett, D. D. (2002). The “death valley” of change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(3), 273–291.
Englander, M. (2012). The Interview: Data Collection in Descriptive Phenomenological Human Scientific Research*. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 13–35.
Gorden, R. (1998). Coding interview responses. Basic Inteviewing Skills, 180–198. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~educy520/sec5982/week_5/qual_data_analy_ex2.pdf.
Hos-McGrane, M. (2010). The SAMR model: From theory to practice [blog post]. Tech Transformation. Retrieved from www. maggiehosmcgrane. com/20l0/04/samr-model-from-theory-to-practice. html Upgrade Your Curriculum: Practical Ways to Transform Units and Engage Students.
Koole, M. (2012). An introduction to phenomenography. In Research in distance education symposium: Teaching and learning in a wired world (RIDES2012). Retrieved from https://landing.athabascau.ca/pg/groups/93225/cde-rides12/.
Laurillard, D. (1999). A conversational framework for individual learning applied to the “learning organisation” and the “learning society.” Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 16, 113–122.
Laurillard, D. (2002). Knowledge Society. EDUCASE Review, 37(1), 16–25.
Laurillard, D. (2003). Towards a Unified E-learning Strategy: Consultation Document. Retrieved from http://eprints.ioe.ac.uk/510/.
Laurillard, D. (2006). E-learning in higher education. Changing higher education: The development of learning and teaching,pp. 71-84.
Laurillard, D. (2007). Introduction. In Beetham et al. (Eds) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age Designing for 21st Century Learning. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Laurillard, D. (2013). Teaching as a design science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology. Routledge.
Leeds Beckett University (n.d.). E-Learning Implementation Plan. Retrieved 3 May, 2015, from https://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/partners/files/CLT_E-LearningImplementationPlan-2014-15.pdf.
Limberg, L. (2000). Phenomenography: a relational approach to research on information needs, seeking and use. Retrieved from http://bada.hb.se:80/handle/2320/6846.
Marton, F. & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awareness. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Marton, F. (1981). Phenomenography - describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science, 10, 177-200.
Marton, F. (1986). Phenomenography—A Research Approach to Investigating Different Understandings of Reality. (pp. 28-49).
Mayes, T. & de Freitas, S. (2004) Review of e-learning theories, frameworks and models. London: Joint Information Systems Committee. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearningpedagogy/outcomes.aspx
Mayes, T., & de Freitas, S. (2013). Technology-enhanced learning: The role of theory. In H. Beetham, & R. Sharpe (Eds.), Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning (2nd ed., pp. 20-29). New York, NY: Routledge.
Nicholson, P. (2007). A History of E-Learning. In B. Fernández-Manjón, J. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Gómez-Pulido, M. Vega-Rodríguez, & J. Bravo-Rodríguez (Eds.), Computers and Education SE - 1 (pp. 1–11). Springer Netherlands.
Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2013). Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 1–12.
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. (n.d.). Chapter B3 Learning and Teaching. UK Quality Code for Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.qaa.ac.uk/AssuringStandardsAndQuality/quality-code/Pages/Quality-Code-Part-B.aspx.
Puentedura, R. R. (2006). Transformation, Technology, and Education. Retrieved 28 May, 2015, from http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/
Puentedura, R. R. (n.d.). Learning, Technology, and the SAMR Model: Goals, Processes, and Practice. Retrieved 24 March, 2015, from http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2014/06/29/LearningTechnologySAMRModel.pdf.
Puentedura, R. R. As We May Teach: Educational Technology, From Theory Into Practice. (2009).
Richardson, J. T. E. (1999). The Concepts and Methods of Phenomenographic Research. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 53–82.
Salmon, G. (2005). Flying not flapping: a strategic framework for e‐learning and pedagogical innovation in higher education institutions. ALT-J, Research in Learning Technology 13(3) 201-218.
Smyth, K., Bruce, S., Fotheringham, J., & Mainka, C. (n.d.). 2. Overview of 3E Framework. Retrieved 12 December, 2015, from http://staff.napier.ac.uk/services/vice-principal-academic/academic/TEL/TechBenchmark/Pages/overview.aspx
Smyth, K., Bruce, S. Fotheringham, J. and Mainka, C. (2011) Benchmark for the use of technology in modules. Retrieved 14 December, 2014, from http://staff.napier.ac.uk/services/academicdevelopment/TechBenchmark/Documents/3E_Framework_Nov_2011.pdf
Smyth, K. (2013) Sharing and shaping effective institutional practice in TEL through the 3E Framework. In S. Greener (Ed) Case studies in e-learning. Reading: Academic Publishing International, pp.141-159.
Stamouli, I., & Huggard, M. (2007). Phenomenography as a tool for understanding our students. In International Symposium for Engineering Education (pp. 181–186).
Thomson, S. (2014). 4E Framework. Retrieved 12 December, 2014, from https://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/partners/4e-framework.htm.
Thomson, S. (n.d.). Background | 4E Framework. Retrieved 5 May, 2015, from http://4e.digis.im/background/.
Vrana, V., Frangidis, G., Zafiropoulos, C., & Paschaloudis, D. (2005). Analyzing academic staff and students’ attitudes towards the adoption of e-learning. In ICDE International Conference.
Walker, R., Voce, J., Nicholls, J., Swift, E., Ahmed, J., Horrigan, S., & Vincent, P. (2014). 2014 Survey of Technology Enhanced Learning for Higher Education in the UK. Retrieved 2 May, 2015, from http://www.ucisa.ac.uk/~/media/groups/dsdg/Tel 2014 Final 18 August.ashx.
Yates, C., Partridge, H., & Bruce, C. (2012). Exploring information experiences through phenomenography. Library and Information Research, 36(112), 96–119.