Scaling up Open CPD for Teachers in Higher Education: A Snowballing Approach

Main Article Content

Chrissi Nerantzi Sue Beckingham

Abstract

In this paper, we explore the snowballing approach developed for the openly licensed course Bring Your Own Device for Learning (BYOD4L) and the opportunities this presents to open cross-institutional CPD and open course development more generally. BYOD4L is a course for teachers and students in higher education which aims to help them gain both a better understanding of and develop their knowledge and skills in using their own smart devices for learning, teaching and professional development. BYOD4L has been developed by the authors and offered three times since 2014 with colleagues and students, participating Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) from the UK and Australia and further collaborators in the US and Germany.

The development of the snowballing approach is shared using an action research methodology. We propose a rethink of current CPD practices. We invite course designers, academic developers and the wider academic community to explore new and emerging models of CPD that capitalise on scalable collaborative open educational practices.

Article Details

Section
Aspects of CPD Opportunities for Staff
Author Biographies

Chrissi Nerantzi, University of Salford

Academic Developer, PGCAP Programme Leader, SFHEA, FSEDA

Sue Beckingham, Sheffield Hallam Univesity

Academic Developer

References

Bennett, L. (2014). Learning from the early adopters: Developing the digital practitioner. Research in Learning Technology, 22. Retrieved from http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/21453/html

BIS. (2011). Students at the heart of the system. Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, Norwich: TSO. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/31384/11-944-higher-education-students-at-heart-of-system.pdf

Browne Report. (2010). Securing a sustainable future for higher education, Department for Employment and Learning. Available from http://www.delni.gov.uk/index/publications/pubs-higher-education/browne-report-student-fees.htm

Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., Keegan, H., & Narayan, V. (2014). Riding the wave of BYOD: Developing a framework for creative pedagogies. Research in Learning Technology , 22, 1–14.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v22.24637

Conole, G. (2013). Designing for learning in an open world. London: Springer.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8517-0

Cormier, D. (2008). Rhizomatic Education: Community as curriculum. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 4(5). Available from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ840362

Crawford, K. (2009). Continuing professional development in higher education: Voices from below. EdD thesis, University of Lincoln. Retrieved from http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/2146/1/Crawford-Ed%28D%29Thesis-CPDinHE-FINAL%28Sept09%29.pdf

Dearing Report. (1997). Higher Education in the Learning Society, Department for Education and Employment. Available from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ncihe/

DfES. (2003). The future of higher education. Retrieved 1 February 2015 from http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/BISCore/corporate/MigratedD/publications/F/future_of_he.pdf

Ecclesfield, N., Rebbeck, G., & Garnett, F. (2012). The case of the curious and the confident – the untold story of changing teacher attitudes to e-learning and "Technology IN Action" in the FE Sector. Compass: The Journal of Learning and Teaching at the University of Greenwich, 5.

European Commission. (2013). High level group on the modernisation of higher education. Report to the European Commission on Improving the quality of teaching and learning in Europe’s higher education institutions. European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/education/higher-education/doc/modernisation_en.pdf

Freire, P. (2011). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. Bergman Ramos, Trans.). New York: Continuum.

Garnett, F. (2013). Wikiquals and #Open #Learning Lab. Available from http://www.slideshare.net/fredgarnett/wikiquals-and-open-learning

Garnett, F., & Ecclesfield, N. (2014). Craft of e-teaching; lessons from the digital practitioner research. The 10th International Scientific Conference eLearning and software for Education, Bucharest, April 24–25, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/6845104/A_Craft_of_e-Teaching_lessons_from_the_Digital_Practitioner_Research

Gauntlett, D. (2011). Making is connecting. The social meaning of creativity, from DIY and knitting to YouTube and Web2.0. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C. Bonk & C. Graham (Eds.), The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. Ultibase, RMIT. Retrieved 20 March 2015 from http://ultibase.rmit.edu.au/Articles/dec00/hase2.htm

Hostetter, C., & M. Busch. (2013). Community matters: Social presence and learning outcomes. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(1), 77–86. Retrieved from http://josotl.indiana.edu/article/view/3268/3623

Jackson, N. J. (2013). The concept of learning ecologies. In N. Jackson and G. B. Cooper (Eds.), Lifewide learning, education and personal development [E-Book. Chapter A5]. Retrieved from http://www.lifewideebook.co.uk/uploads/1/0/8/4/10842717/chapter_a5.pdf

Kember, D., & Gow, L. (1992). Action research as a form of staff development in higher education. Higher Education, 23(3), 297–310. Available from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3447378
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00145018

King, H. (2004, December). Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education: What do academics do? Educational Developments, 5.4, 1–5. Retrieved from http://www.seda.ac.uk/resources/files/publications_25_Educational%20Dev%205.4.pdf

KnowledgeWorks. (2012). Recombinant education: Regenerating the learning ecosystem. Knowledge Works. Retrieved from http://knowledgeworks.org/sites/default/files/Forecast3_0_0.pdf

Laurillard, D. (2012) Teaching as a design science, London: Routledge.

Laurillard, D. (2014a). What is the problem for which MOOCs are the solution? Retrieved from http://ioelondonblog.wordpress.com/2014/05/14/what-is-the-problem-for-which-moocs-are-the-solution/

Laurillard, D. (2014b, 11 July 2014). Which problems could MOOC solve, and how? University World News. Available from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20140708091436155

Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. In G. W. Lewin (Ed.), Resolving socialconflicts. NewYork: Harper &Row.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1946.tb02295.x

Littlejohn, A., & Pegler, C. (2007). Preparing for blended e-learning: Understanding blended and online learning (Connecting with e-learning). Abingdon: Routledge

Luckin, R., Clark, W., Garnett, F., Whitworth, A., Akass, J., Cook, J., … Robertson, J. (2010). Learner generated contexts: A framework to support the effective use of technology to support learning. In: M. J. W. Lee, & C. McLoughlin (Eds.), Web 2.0-based e-learning: Applying social informatics for tertiary teaching (pp. 70–84). IGI Global. Retrieved from http://knowledgeillusion.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/bookchapterluckin2009learnergeneratedcontexts.pdf

Nerantzi, C. (2011). ‘Not too much facilitation going on’ – Issues in facilitating online problem-based learning in academic development. Celebrating the Past and Embracing the Future: Evolution and Innovation in Problem-Based Learning Conference, 30 and 31 March 2011, University of Central Lancashire (pp. 111–124).

Nerantzi, C. (2014a, June 2014). The open bug: A story of collaboration & resurrection. In C. Nerantzi & S. Beckingham (Eds.), Using social media in the social age of learning (pp. 10–12). Lifewide Magazine, Special Edition.

Nerantzi, C. (2014b). A personal journey of discoveries through a DIY open course development for professional development of teachers in higher education (invited paper). Journal of Pedagogic Development, University of Bedfordshire, 4(2), 42–58, Available from http://www.beds.ac.uk/jpd

Nerantzi, C., & Beckingham, S. (2014). BYOD4L – Our magical open box to enhance individuals’ learning ecologies. In N. Jackson & J. Willis (Eds.), Lifewide learning and education in universities and colleges [E-Book]. Available from http://www.learninglives.co.uk/e-book.html

Nerantzi, C., Middleton, A., & Beckingham, S. (2014). Facilitators as co-learners in a collaborative open course for teachers and students in higher education. Learning in cyberphysical worlds, eLearning paper, 39, 1–10. Available from http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/article/Learning-in-cyber-physical-worlds_From-field_39_2

Nerantzi, C., & Beckingham, S. (2015, in print). BYOD4L: Learning to use own smart devices for learning and teaching through the 5C framework. In A. Middleton (Ed.), Smart learning: Teaching and learning with smartphones and tablets in post-compulsory education. Sheffield: MELSIG publication.

Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer.

Reason, P., & Bradbury, H. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of action research. London: Sage Publications.

Redecker, C., Leis, M., Leendertse, M., Punie, Y., Gijsbers, G., Kirschner, … Hoogveld, B. (2011). The future of learning: Preparing for change. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies EUR 24960 EN Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available from http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=4719

Salmon, G. (2013). E-tivities. The key to active online learning (2nd ed.). Oxon: Routledge.

Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. Towards a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Thomas, P., & Carswell, L. (2000). Learning through collaboration in a distributed education environment. Educational Technology & Society, 3(3), 373–382. Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/journals/3_3/d12.html

Weller, M. (2011). The Digital Scholar. How technology is transforming scholarly practice. London: Bloomsbury.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849666275

Weller, M. (2014, 21 March). The Battle for open webinar. The Ed Techie. Available at http://nogoodreason.typepad.co.uk/

Wenger, E., White, N., & Smith, J. D. (2009). Digital habitats, stewarding technology for communities. Portland, OR: CPsquare.

White, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday,16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/article/view/3171/3049
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v16i9.3171

White, D., & Manton, M. (2011). Open Educational Resources: The value of reuse in higher education. JISC-funded OER Impact Study, University of Oxford. Retrieved from http://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20140614114921/http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearning/oer/OERTheValueOfReuseInHigherEducation.pdf

Whitmore, J. (1993). Coaching for performance: A practical guide to growing your own 5 skills. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.